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Elite Art Worlds: Philanthropy, Latin Americanism, and Avant-Garde Music

Eduardo Herrera
Book Work in Progress | 2018|
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Starting in 1962, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Di Tella Institute financed the creation of the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (CLAEM) in Buenos Aires, a graduate center for studies in Western art music composition under the direction of Argentine composer Alberto Ginastera. During the next decade, a total of fifty-four fellowship holders from thirteen different countries studied at CLAEM with world-renowned composers, created regional professional networks, and familiarized themselves with contemporary compositional techniques and works. By the time of its closing in 1971, CLAEM had become an epicenter for the embrace, articulation, and resignification of avant-garde art music in Latin America. This book project, Elite Art Worlds: Philanthropy, Latin Americanism, and Avant-garde Music, combines oral histories, ethnographic research, and archival sources to reveal CLAEM as a meeting point of U.S. and Argentine philanthropy, regional discourses of musical Latin Americanism, and local experiences in transnational currents of artistic experimentation and innovation.

CLAEM was the single most influential institution for Latin American art music during the second half of the twentieth century. It offered two-year fellowships to young Latin American composers for intensive study with local, North American, and European teachers such as Olivier Messiaen, Aaron Copland, Iannis Xenakis, Gerardo Gandini, Luigi Dallapiccola, Riccardo Malipiero, Francisco Kröpfl, Vladimir Ussachevsky, and Luigi Nono. Many of the fellows of the Center became prominent figures in this art world, including Rafael Aponte Ledée (Puerto Rico), Coriún Aharonián (Uruguay), Blas Emilio Atehortúa (Colombia), Cesar Bolaños (Peru), Gabriel Brnčić (Chile), Mariano Etkin (Argentina), alcides lanza (Argentina), Mesías Maiguashca (Ecuador), Marlos Nobre (Brazil), Jacqueline Nova (Colombia), Joaquín Orellana (Guatemala), Graciela Paraskevaídis (Argentina), Jorge Sarmientos (Guatemala), Édgar Valcárcel (Peru), and Alberto Villalpando (Bolivia).

The significance of this monograph goes beyond the crucial yet undocumented role of CLAEM in the history of Latin America's art music. The three parts that thematically group the eight chapters of Elite Art Worlds speak to broader issues of interest to the humanities and social sciences. Part I: Philanthropy and Elite Art Worlds uses the creation of CLAEM as a case study in philanthropy and cultural diplomacy, illuminating the relationships between elite groups, foreign policy, corporate interests, and funding for the arts, and brings to the foreground the part played by individuals in actually existing philanthropy. Looking at how patronage worked for the creation of CLAEM provides a rich understanding of the role of the arts in the legitimation, maintenance, and reproduction of elite status. This study offers rare and needed insight into the worldviews of elite groups in Argentina and the United States and their discursive practices regarding the arts. Scholars have looked at the Rockefeller Foundation's music related projects and their implications in Inter-American relations, but have yet to study CLAEM, a major absence considering that only a handful of them received such substantial funding and had this kind of lasting impact in a whole region. My findings show that the level of international commitment to this project was intimately tied to Cold War political ideas that blurred the lines between U.S. philanthropy, cultural diplomacy, foreign policy, and private interests. As such, this book complements and adds to the study of narratives about the relationship between the United States and Latin America proposed in Carol Hess's Representing the Good Neighbor: Music, Difference, and the Pan American Dream. Hess, like Jennifer Campbell, takes as a starting point the 1930s and 1940s with U.S. cultural diplomacy at its nascent stages. This study looks at the directions that cultural diplomacy—hand in hand with philanthropy—took during the late 1950s and 1960s, framed no longer by the U.S. Good Neighbor policy, but by the establishment and demise of the Alliance for Progress and theories of developmentalism. Within Argentina, my work with the Di Tella family—one of the richest in the country and with a history not unlike that of the Rockefellers—reveals the complex motivations that lie behind their significant philanthropic efforts to support avant-garde music. These include a pragmatic exchange of economic to cultural capital, a deep belief in the importance of art as part of human expression, and the resonance between innovative art and a modernizing discourse prevalent at the time. In dialogue with Andrea Giunta's examination of visual and plastic arts at the Di Tella Institute in her Avant-garde, Internationalism, and Politics: Argentine Art in the Sixties, my work demonstrates that the incursion of the Di Tella family into supporting an emerging art world was not circumstantially focused on the avant-garde, but was a strategic move that legitimated them as a new elite, and also marked distinction in taste with older more conservative groups.

Part II: Latin Americanism and Social Networks at CLAEM, looks at this story as a deeply formative social experience for the people involved in terms of identifications as Latin American, and senses of belonging to a generational and professional cohort. Under this second theme I examine musical Latin Americanism as a discursive formation—a kind of counterpart to Edward Said's Orientalism. This includes not only so-called Western representations of Latin America, but also Latin American discourses of the Self. In this way, it contributes to the work of postcolonial studies in exploring the creation and re-creation of what Walter Mignolo has called the "idea of Latin America." Complementing Hess' epistemological focus on the United States in her Representing the Good Neighbor, this book takes Latin America as its starting point and addresses how local and regional belonging informed constructions of subjectivity and a shift from Pan Americanism to Latin Americanism in the art music world.

Finally, Part III: Avant-garde(s) uses CLAEM as a window into how diverse international models of musical avant-gardism were followed, consumed, and rearticulated, and then became embodied, resignified, and institutionalized in Latin America during the 1960s. Art music is a deeply transnational tradition, but like other cosmopolitan practices, it often manifests in grounded and highly localized ways. I show how the adoption of avant-garde practices point to deep modernist desires and understandings that go well beyond composing music and extend to everyday life, and at the same time are deeply shaped by a Latin American experience. This book argues that for many of the composers involved with CLAEM, the avant-garde was much more than a selection of techniques or aesthetic preferences: to be avant-garde required a radical positioning within the art world, and extended to include a particular way of experiencing and being in the world. Building from this, my book contributes to the recent turn in experimental music studies led by Benjamin Piekut's Experimentalism Otherwise and his edited volume Tomorrow is the Question, in looking at avant-garde and experimentalism not as categories, but as something that comes into being through contested, conflicted, and highly localized practices of music making.

Experimentalisms in Practice: Perspectives from Latin America

Eduardo Herrera, Ana Alonso-Minutti, Alejandro Madrid
Edited Book Oxford University Press | 2018|
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If we consider music to be a space in which one can experience the world, then musical experimentalism is the shifting reconfiguration of the limits that porously bound that space. For any musical tradition, broadly or narrowly defined, this space is constituted by complex entanglements of understandings, perceptions, preconceptions, and ideologies, both aesthetic and ethical, happening at a specific moment in time. Experimentation happens only within these localized terms, in acts that are conceived and/or perceived as experimental by practitioners, listeners, participants, or any bearer of the tradition itself. Nevertheless, what we aim to highlight is not the result of prescriptive ontologies, but the descriptions of how experimentalisms take place, in practice, how the very ontology of the term is in fact performed by those practitioners in the act of doing something they may refer to as experimental. In short, we are as interested in the performativity of musical experimentalism (what happens when experimentalisms happen) as we are in the performativity of the actions of those who may make experimental music (what happens when experimental musicians act as such)

Our adoption of a plural "experimentalisms" points at a purposeful decentering of its usual U.S. and Eurocentric interpretative frameworks. The case studies in this volume contribute to this by challenging discourses about Latin@s and Latin Americans that have historically marginalized them. As such, the notion of "experimentalisms" works as a performative operation of sound, soundings, music, and musicking that gives social and historical meaning to the networks it temporarily conforms and situates. This volume highlights the importance of locating a variety of experimental practices both temporally and geographically, thus avoiding generic classifications and asynchronous understandings. The various essays in this collection reveal that there is nothing homogeneous about Latin@ and Latin American experimental music scenes. Instead, we are in front of complex conglomerations of exchanges between North and South and East and West that point towards the multiethnic, heterogeneous character and the postnational potential of Latin@ and Latin American experimental practices.

This book is divided into four large thematic sections: "Centers and Institutions," "Beyond the Limits of Hybridity," "Anti-Colonial Practices," and "Performance, Movements, and Scenes" with Rodolfo Acosta, Ana R. Alonso-Minutti, Tamar Barzel, Susan Campos-Fonseca, Andrew Raffo Dewar, Eduardo Herrera, Alejandro L. Madrid, Benjamin Piekut , Marysol Quevedo, Pepe Rojo, Dan Sharp, Susan Thomas, and Joshua Tucker.The chapters in this book should not be read as cases parallel to the master narratives already in place, but as proof of the failures of these narratives themselves. We invite the reader to navigate freely the cosmopolitan imaginaries exposed in the collection of essays. They introduce various music-making scenarios that confront constantly invoked dichotomies such as popular/classical, folk/academic, local/transnational, noise/sound, improvised/composed, or work/performance. Throughout the book we attempt to provide an answer to the question: how are experimentalisms framed in a number of Latin@ and Latin American contexts? As such, we engage experimentation not as a historical sign for the cultural phenomenon of an era, but rather as a fluid concept that allows for the coexisting of a series of contradictions within.

Electroacoustic Music at CLAEM: A Pioneer Studio in Latin America.

Eduardo Herrera
Journal Article Journal of the Society for American Music, forthcoming Vol.12

Abstract

During the 1950s and 1960s, many composers began exploring the possibilities provided by commercially available magnetic tape recording and electronically produced sound. In Latin America, the most successful of the pioneer electroacoustic music studios was hosted at the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (CLAEM, 1962–1971), part of the Torcuato Di Tella Institute, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This article chronicles the eight years of existence of CLAEM's Laboratorio de música electrónica (1964–1971), and its role in the training of composers hailing from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay and the United States. Its main objective is to provide a historical account of pioneering work in Latin American electroacoustic music, and give insight into local intricacies of following, consuming, and rearticulating international musical models engaged with technology, experimentation, and the broader avant-garde.

The Rockefeller Foundation and Latin American Music in the 1960s: The Creation of Indiana University's LAMC and Di Tella Institute's CLAEM

Eduardo Herrera
Journal Article American Music 35, no.1, forthcoming

Abstract

In the beginning of the 1960s the Rockefeller Foundation gave two significant grants towards the study of Latin American music. Sponsored by John P. Harrison, Assistant Director for Humanities at the Rockefeller Foundation, their aim was to help the creation of institutions that would provide a sustaining environment in which cultural work may flourish. The first grant was for the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (CLAEM) at the Torcuato Di Tella Institute in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which under the leadership of Alberto Ginastera offered graduate training in avant-garde musical composition. The second grant was given to Indiana University, Bloomington, to establish the Latin American Music Center (LAMC) for the study and performance of Latin American music under the direction of Juan Orrego-Salas. By tracing the constitutive networks that led to the CLAEM and LAMC grants, this article seeks to destabilize the concept of philanthropy as a preexisting third space between the private and public sectors, and instead argues that for its examination as an emerging domain that results from complex entanglements, webs of relations and ideas, all being mediated and enacted as the result of human, institutional, discursive, and even material actors. This project illuminates the relationships between foreign policy, corporate interests, and funding for the arts in the mid-twentieth century, and brings to the foreground the part played by individuals in actual existing philanthropy.

El compositor uruguayo Coriún Aharonián: música, ideología y el rol del compositor en la sociedad

Eduardo Herrera
Journal Article Latin American Music Review 34: 254–285

Abstract

Composer Coriún Aharonián (b.1940) has been for the past forty years one of the most significant figures of contemporary music composition in Uruguay and Latin America. In this article, an homage on his 70th birthday, I provide a biography that connects his historical context to his musical production, and explain the tenacious manner in which his compositions looks to incorporate seamlessly aspects of politics, ethics and ideology.

Austeridad, sintaxis no-discursiva y microprocesos en la obra de Coriún Aharonián

Eduardo Herrera
Journal Article Revista de música, artes visuales y artes escénicas 1 (2005): 23–65

Abstract

Within the world's current geopolitical configuration, Latin American creative acts tend to have fewer opportunities to become viable cultural models, and easily succumb to models coming from more powerful regions. In this context, the music by Uruguayan composer Coriún Aharonián (Montevideo, b.1940) has remained in the underground of Latin American art music circles, overshadowed by other composers of the region who are more accepting of and compliant to the trends stemming from the centers of power. It is this conscious effort in generating countermodels that do not conform to the prevalent expectations radiating from traditional cultural centers which lends significance to Aharonián's music. This article examines three features present in Aharonián's compositions: austerity, non-discursive syntax, and the use of microprocesses. Their particular manifestations are traced in numerous examples taken from several of Aharonián's acoustic and electroacoustic compositions created between 1966 and 1999. These show an application of the idea of austerity to pitch content, timbre, rhythmic and melodic figures, and notation; two main ways of generating non–discursive syntax (high sectionalization and stratification); and finally the use of microprocesses as means for development of material including the use of microtonalism, microvariations and recontextualization.

Pensar los compositores latinoamericanos del final del siglo XX y primeras décadas del XXI desde una perspectiva poscolonial

Eduardo Herrera
Journal Article Pauta 32, no. 135: 44–57

Abstract

This essay presents a reflection on the discursive practices and the power structures that give shape to the labor of composing in the Latin American classical music tradition by the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries.

The Practices of Experimentalism in Latin@ and Latin American Music: An Introduction

Eduardo Herrera, Ana Alonso-Minutti, Alejandro Madrid
Book Chapter Experimentalisms in Practice: Music Perspectives from Latin America. Oxford University Press | Forthcoming | ISBN-10:

"It Is Not Really Something You Would Show In A Concert, Right?" Experimentation and Legitimacy at the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales

Eduardo Herrera, Ana Alonso-Minutti, Alejandro Madrid
Book Chapter Experimentalisms in Practice: Music Perspectives from Latin America. Oxford University Press | Forthcoming | ISBN-10:

Perspectiva Internacional: Lo 'Latinoamericano' del Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales

Eduardo Herrera
Book Chapter La música en el Di Tella: resonancias de la modernidad Secretaría de Cultura, Presidencia de la Nación, Argentina | 2011: 30–35 |

Soccer Chants, Participatory Sounding, and the Public Articulation of Heteronormativity

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper 61st Annual Meeting of the Society for Ethnomusicology, Washington D.C., November 10–13, 2016

Abstract

In a regular Argentine soccer club match one can find between five to sixty thousand fans chanting together, accompanied by large drum and brass sections. The opposing players and fans are often the target of androcentric, heteronormative, and even homophobic songs. Archetti (1997, 1999) foregrounded the role that Argentine soccer had in the performance of a nationalist masculinities, while Kopiez and Brink (1998) and more recently Alabarces (2015) have paid particular attention to the layers of meaning embedded in chants that originate in familiar popular melodies and are given altered or new words. While these researchers have delved into chant texts and their metaphorical implications, they have left unexplored the specific potentials that participatory sounding in synchrony brings to this experience. In this paper I argue that public mass participatory singing in the stadium functions as a social mechanism that articulates anxieties about non-heteronormative sexuality. Chanting in massive numbers allows for the public utterance of expressions, slurs, and profanity that most people might refrain to use individually. Based on fieldwork in Buenos Aires and recordings produced by fans of Boca Juniors ("La 12"), I propose a surface reading/listening (Best and Marcus, 2009) of these chants that pays attention to the delivery and articulation of both words and sounds, and takes at face value what, and how people are actually singing in the safety of the collective. This research bears wide-ranging implications for our understanding of the potentials of participatory sound and music making in public arenas.

A Composer in Crisis: Alberto Ginastera's Struggles with Fundraising, Politics and Family

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Vancouver, B.C., November 2–6, 2016

Abstract

In 1971, Alberto Ginastera wrote to his friend, the playwright José María Paolantonio, "My serious personal problems and the exhausting fundraising work at the Di Tella undermined my creative will. Since the beginning of 1968 I had not written a single note. That was terrible, since the crisis happened at the highpoint of my career." During his tenure as director of the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (1962-1971) at the Di Tella Institute, Ginastera fully embraced his remarkable aptitude for artistic entrepreneurship and strategically exchanged cultural and symbolic capital accumulated in previous decades to find financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, the OAS, and private companies like Ricordi, Olivetti, and Pepsi-Cola. However, by the end of the decade the fundraising had become much more pressing and time consuming, the censorship in Argentina of his opera Bomarzo had disillusioned him about his own country, and his relationship with his family had deteriorated, leading to his separation from his first wife, Mercedes del Toro. By looking at what Schwartz-Kates has called "a traumatic period in the composer's life" resulting in "artistic paralysis," this paper uses correspondence and interviews with Ginastera's family and students to add to our understanding of his life during this decade, which resulted in his permanent move to Europe in 1971. In broader terms, this paper emphasizes looking at composition both as labor, and as part of everyday life, directly affecting compositional output and representations of musical and political selves.

Avant-Garde Music, Patronage, and the Consolidation of Elite Status in Argentina during the 1960s

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper 50th Annual Conference of the Latin American Studies Association, New York, NY, May 27–30, 2016

Abstract

In 1958, Guido and Torcuato S. Di Tella—both under 30 years old and sole heirs of the largest industrial emporium of Argentina— decided to push forward a plan to make Buenos Aires a center for the artistic avant-garde, and used a significant part of their family fortune to create the Torcuato Di Tella Institute. In 1962, the Di Tella Institute, with significant collaboration from the Rockefeller Foundation, financed the creation of the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (CLAEM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. During the next decade (1962-1971) the CLAEM became the most significant epicenter of avant-garde musical production in Latin America. By mixing oral history with ethnographic research, this paper examines the ways in which avant-garde music—and art in general—was relevant to the Di Tella family at a time when they were in the process of reconfiguring their elite identity. My investigation shows the complex and often contradictory positions of Guido and Torcuato S. Di Tella as they legitimized their status and made the Di Tella name be associated not just with refrigerators and automobiles, but with the contemporary art world. This work combines ethnomusicological research with theoretical frameworks from elite studies to provide a better understanding of the role of avant-garde art in the consolidation of elite status while still considering them dynamic and heterogeneous.

Musicology: A Reflection on Taxonomies, Genealogies, and Approaches to Music Research

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper Sponsored by the Research Resources Interest Group, 42nd Annual Conference of the Society for American Music, Boston, MA, March 9–13, 2016

The Rockefeller Foundation and the Creation of Indiana University's Latin American Music Center: Patronage, Knowledge, Power.

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper Frederick Loewe Symposium in American Music: Who Pays? Who Plays? Patronage and Entrepreneurship in American Music, University of Redlands, California, October 26–30, 2015

Abstract

In the beginning of the 1960s the Rockefeller Foundation gave two significant grants towards the study of Latin American music. Sponsored by John P. Harrison, Assistant Director for Humanities at the Rockefeller Foundation, their aim was to help the creation of institutions that would provide a sustaining environment in which cultural work may flourish. The first grant was for the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (CLAEM) at the Torcuato Di Tella Institute in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which under the leadership of Alberto Ginastera offered graduate training in avant-garde musical composition. The second grant was given to Indiana University, Bloomington, to establish the Latin American Music Center (LAMC) for the study and performance of Latin American music under the direction of Juan Orrego-Salas. By tracing the constitutive actor-networks that led to these grants, my paper seeks to destabilize the concept of philanthropy as a preexisting third force located between the public and private sector (Fisher 1983). Instead it presents it as an emerging domain, the result of complex entanglements, webs of relations and ideas that are mediated and enacted as the result of human, institutional, technological, discursive, and material actors (Latour 2005). This project illuminates the relationships between foreign policy, corporate interests, and funding for the arts in the mid-twentieth century, and brings to the foreground the part played by individuals in actually existing philanthropy.

It Is Not Really Something You Would Show In A Concert, Right?' Experimentation and Legitimacy at the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper Experimental Music in Practice Symposium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, September 25, 2015

Iannis Xenakis in Argentina: Reception, Dialogues, and Exchanges

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Proceeding 6th UFRJ International Symposium on Musicology & International Colloquium Ibero-American Institute / University Of Arts (UdK), Berlin "Cultural Exchanges: Music Between Latin America and Europe," Rio de Janeiro, August 10–15, 2015

Abstract

Iannis Xenakis visited Argentina as professor of the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (CLAEM) of the Torcuato Di Tella Institute during late August and early September 1966. The 44-year old Xenakis was known in the Buenos Aires avant-garde music scene: The world premier of Achorripsis had taken place at the Teatro Colón in 1958 and Diamorphoses and Pithopraktá had been heard in 1962 and 1963, respectively, all to lukewarm response from the audience. Nevertheless, the local press announced his arrival with excitement and gave ample coverage to his stay, including his lecture-recital "New Principles of Musical Composition". The interdisciplinary character and scientificist language in which Xenakis's work was framed—mathematics, architecture, and computer-aided composition—stimulated the imagination of the public in Buenos Aires regarding the relationship between art and science, and resonated with a modernizing discourse that looked to establish relations between artistic production, technology, and Argentina's industrial development. At the CLAEM, Xenakis offered a course titled "Stochastic, Strategic, and Symbolic Music", in which he shared his experiences with theories of probability and computer-aided composition, focusing on his series of works titled with the prefix ST. However, the interactions went beyond the classroom, and included long discussions with composers, socialization, and time for leisure. Xenakis's ideas made an impact on several of the Latin-American composers working at the CLAEM, perhaps most evident in the case of the argentine Graciela Paraskevaídis. The young Paraskevaídis resonated with Xenakis in his interest to prioritize parameters of timbre and texture over pitch and rhythm—something that both composers had embraced from Varèse—and in their common ties to Greece—Paraskevaídis paternal and maternal family were Greek. Finally, the visit stimulated Xenakis's imagination regarding the possibility of transforming graphic material into sound after his exchanges with Fernando von Reichenbach, something that crystallized with the development of Reichenbach's Convertidor Gráfico Analógico (functional since 1969), and Xenakis's Unité Polyagogique Informatique CEMAMu (UPIC, in development since the early seventies, and functional since 1977). Using archival resources and a thorough compilation of oral history, this work explores these three aspects of Xenakis's trip to Argentina: (1) the way the media framed the visit of the European composer, and the reception of the events organized around it under a modernist discourse; (2) the impact that this visit had over some of the composers at the CLAEM, particularly Paraskevaídis; and (3) the exchanges that Xenakis had with the engineer Fernando von Reichenbach.

La vanguardia encarnada/la vanguardia como forma de ser: El caso del Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales del Instituto Di Tella

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper VIII Coloquio Internacional de Musicología and I Latin American and Caribbean Regional Conference of the International Musicological Society, (ARALC/IMS), Havana, Cuba, March 17–21, 2014

Abstract

Es equivocado pensar en la vanguardia sólo como un estilo de composicional o un grupo de preferencias estéticas. La vanguardia como fue recibida y apropiada por múltiples compositores latinoamericanos durante la década de 1960 becarios del Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (CLAEM) fue también un posicionamiento particular con respecto al campo de producción artística en general. Por una parte, muchos de los compositores becarios del CLAEM que adoptaron actitudes de vanguardia lo hicieron por su capacidad subversiva y emancipadora con respecto a formas anteriores de hacer música. A través de la música de vanguardia expresaron su adherencia a un sentimiento de desconformidad con el canon y con los límites existentes de la música clásica. Por otra parte, la vanguardia era un signo de adopción exitosa de las tendencias de producción artística internacionales contemporáneas, y por lo tanto se convertía en un índice de cosmopolitismo. En esta ponencia se demuestra el delicado balance que había en el CLAEM entre una creencia personal comprometida en el potencial de impacto social de la vanguardia de los 60s y las tácticas y estrategias profesionales específicas al estilo musical en un campo de producción artística que premiaba la novedad y la innovación.

La vanguardia encarnada/la vanguardia como forma de ser: El caso del Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales del Instituto Di Tella

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper VIII Coloquio Internacional de Musicología and I Latin American and Caribbean Regional Conference of the International Musicological Society, (ARALC/IMS), Havana, Cuba, March 17–21, 2014

Abstract

Es equivocado pensar en la vanguardia sólo como un estilo de composicional o un grupo de preferencias estéticas. La vanguardia como fue recibida y apropiada por múltiples compositores latinoamericanos durante la década de 1960 becarios del Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (CLAEM) fue también un posicionamiento particular con respecto al campo de producción artística en general. Por una parte, muchos de los compositores becarios del CLAEM que adoptaron actitudes de vanguardia lo hicieron por su capacidad subversiva y emancipadora con respecto a formas anteriores de hacer música. A través de la música de vanguardia expresaron su adherencia a un sentimiento de desconformidad con el canon y con los límites existentes de la música clásica. Por otra parte, la vanguardia era un signo de adopción exitosa de las tendencias de producción artística internacionales contemporáneas, y por lo tanto se convertía en un índice de cosmopolitismo. En esta ponencia se demuestra el delicado balance que había en el CLAEM entre una creencia personal comprometida en el potencial de impacto social de la vanguardia de los 60s y las tácticas y estrategias profesionales específicas al estilo musical en un campo de producción artística que premiaba la novedad y la innovación.

From Tango Nuevo to Avant-Garde: Disenchantment with the Fringes of Music Making

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper 58th Annual Meeting of the Society for Ethnomusicology, Indianapolis, IN, November 14–17, 2013

Abstract

In 1967, Ariel Martínez (b.1936), one of the top bandoneón performers of Uruguay, recorded four tangos with his Trio Nuevo. The first two, Homo sapiens and Homo faber, were certainly at the vanguard of tango music, aligned with the emerging 1950s Tango Nuevo and its main representative Astor Piazzolla. However, in Homo ludens I and II, the score asks the musicians to spontaneously choose and repeat at will one of several short motivic cells with only brief moments of synchronized playing among them, taking instrumental tango-making to its fringes. After this recording, Martínez abandoned tango, feeling there was no possibility left for a novel creation in the genre. He became a full time classical music composer, a free improviser and an active participant of Buenos Aires's most important electronic music studio. After many years of struggling to get performances and gain the acceptance of the public and critics Martínez became recluse and unwilling to share his work, in the same manner he had stopped to play the bandoneón. Today, disillusioned with all avant-garde aesthetics, he has become very critical of the push for the destruction of musical paradigms during the zenith of avant-garde composition. This paper explores the way Martínez negotiated music making on the fringes both in the popular and classical realm, looking in particular at his narratives of disenchantment with tango and contemporary classical music. His story provides an unconventional insight to the embrace and rejection of avant-garde aesthetics in the southern cone.

Cross-Border Encounters in the Global South: A New Look at Cold War Cultural Diplomacy

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper Sponsored by the Cold War and Music Study Group, 79th Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Pittsburgh, PA, November 7–10, 2013

The CLAEM and the Legitimation of the Avant-Garde

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper 39th Annual Conference of the Society for American Music, Little Rock, AK, March 6–10, 2013

The Rockefeller Foundation and Latin American Music during the Cold War: Meeting Points of Music, Policy, and Philanthropy

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper Transcending Borders: Latin American Music and its Projection onto the World Stage, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, February 22–23, 2013

Breve introducción a la historia del Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales del Instituto Torcuato Di Tella

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper XVII Festival Latinoamericano de Música, Caracas, Venezuela, May 21, 2012

Review of Representing the Good Neighbor: Music, Difference, and the Pan American Dream by Carol Hess (Oxford University Press, 2013) and Sounds of War: Music in the United States during World War II by Annegret Fauser (Oxford University Press, 2013)

Eduardo Herrera
Review Journal of the Society for American Music 10/1 (2016): 91–97

Review of Brazilian Popular Music and Citizenship, edited by Idelber Avelar and Christopher Dunn (Duke University Press, 2011)

Eduardo Herrera
Review Ameriquests 9 (2012)

Towards an Ethnomusicology of Elites and the Construction of Elite Art Worlds

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper 56th Annual Meeting of the Society for Ethnomusicology, Philadelphia, PA, November 18, 2011

The Rockefeller Foundation and Latin American Music during the Cold War: Meeting Points of Music, Policy, and Philanthropy

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper Cultural Counterpoints: Examining the Musical Interactions between the U.S. and Latin America, conference in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Indiana University Latin American Music Center in Bloomington, IN, October 20, 2011

Dependency Theory and Musical Militancy: Joining the Cosmopolitan Avant-Garde from an Argentinean Perspective

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper 36th Annual Conference of the Society for American Music, Ottawa, ON, Canada, March 18, 2010

Dependency Theory and Musical Militancy: Joining the Cosmopolitan Avant-Garde from an Argentinean Perspective

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper 54th Annual Meeting of the Society for Ethnomusicology, Mexico City, Mexico, November 22, 2009

The Di Tella Institute: Development Funds, Cold War Strategies and the Politics of the Musical Avant-Garde in Argentina (1961–1971)

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper 52nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Ethnomusicology. Columbus, OH, October 27, 2007

'We Were Commies for the Right and Elite for the Left': Paradoxes of Political Identity among Latin American Composers in the 1960s

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper Music And Postcolonial Studies: Columbia Music Scholarship Conference 2007, New York, NY, February 3, 2007

Coriún Aharonián: Ideological Awareness and Issues of Cultural Identity in Latin-American Contemporary Music

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper Latin American and Caribbean Studies Center's Annual Graduate Student Conference Open the Horizon: New Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Latin America, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY, April 15, 2005

Coriún Aharonián: Ideological Awareness and Issues of Cultural Identity in Latin-American Contemporary Music

Eduardo Herrera
Conference Paper Midwest Graduate Music Consortium, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, February 25–26, 2005